馃└ Nosebleed or epistaxis: When is it due to high blood pressure?

馃└ Is nosebleeding a symptom of uncontrolled hypertension?

1/5/20243 min read

馃└ Epistaxis, commonly known as nosebleed, occurs when blood vessels inside the nose break and cause blood to flow out through the nostrils. Although it can be alarming, in most cases, it is not serious and can be easily resolved.

馃└馃憙 Nosebleeds are a common reason for consultation associated with high blood pressure, sometimes leading directly to our cardiovascular clinic. "Is my nose bleeding because I have hypertension or do I have hypertension because my nose is bleeding?"

馃挕 Summarized in 4 messages:
- Firstly, hypertension is not a cause of nosebleeds. Generally, it is due to the rupture of small vessels in the nose, with direct trauma being the most common reason.
- Blood pressure rises due to any physical or psychological stress, so the anxiety/fear caused by the bleeding馃└generates a response increasing the pressure.
- First, treat the bleeding with an otolaryngologist and not hypertension. An otolaryngologist is a physician specialized in diseases related to the ears, nose, and throat. In cases of recurrent bleeding, cauterization of damaged blood vessels (with medications or electrically) is common, or in more severe cases, surgery may be required.
- Monitor your blood pressure at home afterward to know your values and consult your cardiologist. Do not modify your medication (if you are taking any) until you know your true values under appropriate conditions.

What are the most common causes of nosebleeds? Here they are detailed:
鈻笍 Nose injuries: Certain habits such as forcefully scratching the nose or inserting foreign objects can damage blood vessels and cause bleeding.
鈻笍 Trauma: Blows to the nose or face can break blood vessels and cause nosebleeds.
鈻笍 Exposure to dry air: Dry air can dry out the nasal membranes, making them more susceptible to bleeding.
鈻笍 Infections: Certain infections such as the common cold or sinusitis can irritate the nasal membranes and cause bleeding.
鈻笍 Medication use: Some medications, such as anticoagulants, can increase the risk of nosebleeds.

If you experience a nosebleed episode, there are some measures you can take to stop the bleeding:
鈻笍 Stay calm: Although bleeding can be alarming, it's important to stay calm to take the appropriate measures.
鈻笍 Sit upright and lean forward: Sit in an upright position and slightly tilt your head forward. This will help prevent blood from flowing down the throat and prevent swallowing blood.
鈻笍 Apply pressure to the nose: Use your thumb and index finger to gently pinch the soft part of the nose, just below the nasal bone. Maintain pressure for at least 10 minutes without releasing. This will help stop the bleeding.
鈻笍 Apply ice: Place a cold compress or an ice pack wrapped in a cloth on the nose. The cold will help contract the blood vessels and stop the bleeding.
鈻笍 Avoid physical exertion: During the first few hours after a nosebleed episode, avoid intense physical activities that may increase blood pressure and cause new bleeding.

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